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greetings everyone i'm nate angel from hypothesis and i'm really pleased to introduce this panel today um with some really stellar folks who've been working in digital literacies for quite a while and have really interesting things to say
i'm sure because i've heard them all say interesting things on twitter for sure so without further ado i'm going to um pass the baton over to mary klong who um is one of our uh most treasured
annotator resources and she has worked really hard to bring together this group of great folks to talk about uh social annotation and digital literacies so without further ado i'm going to pass the baton to you mary and we'll be monitoring the chat and the q
a to um get to that when it's appropriate all right thanks nate and hi everybody thanks so much for coming to our panel on social annotation and digital literacies um so as nate said my name is mary klon
i am joining you all from san diego um where i teach history at uc san diego and san diego miramar college and i'm really excited to get into this conversation between all three of these
expert educators on um annotation it's gonna be a lot of really interesting things to discuss um so the format for the panel we have about 10 minutes per presenter and then um i'll introduce everybody
like before they start talking and then we have plenty of time for discussion for q a so please feel free to drop any questions you have in the chat i will keep an eye on it and i'll make sure that we'll get to everything um in our q a session
so is everybody ready okay so um i uh we'll just be going in the order that's in the program so the first uh speaker up is janae cohn and she is the director of academic
technology at california state university sacramento um she writes and teaches about um or sorry writes and speaks about teaching in digital spaces and is the author of
skim dive surface teaching digital reading which is published recently from west virginia university press so with that i will turn it over to janae thank you mary for the
introduction and welcome everyone nice to see all of you here today um i'm going to go ahead and share my screen so if you'll give me just a moment to get that hooked up here i'm happy to speak today
to responding to a question about what do i and i'm imagining a student here do with a reading thinking about social annotation as creative practice for online reading experiences
so specifically what i'll speak to in my 10 minutes here is some thinking around what it looks like to support students in thinking of social annotation not just as positioning students as peer
respondents to readings or even as sort of pure um kind of reactors to reading but as people who can create and build new knowledge from reading as a component of developing
digital literacies so here's how we will um get at some of those questions today i'll start by discussing social annotation as creative practice as part of a digital reading framework
that i developed in my recent book skim dive surface so we'll contextualize this concept with a little bit of groundwork framing then i'll move to make the case that social annotation practicing social annotation is a
reflection of digital literacy development i'll define briefly what digital literacy means and we'll bring social annotation into that conversation and i'll end with some very concrete teaching tips i imagine if you're here you're interested in thinking about some
ways you might bring this into a classroom practice even if you yourself are not a classroom instructor i believe everyone who is a designer or a thinker around digital interfaces is in some
respect a teacher too so we will talk about some prompts and then a couple of activities before i pass it off to my panel colleagues and before we convene as a group so in my book skim dive surface teachal
digital reading um i composed a framework for digital reading that sort of speaks to five forms of engagement and really social annotation activates all five of these forms in different ways
uh through social annotation we curate knowledge by highlighting particular moments in the text by aggregating a variety of different perspectives we also engage in connection this ability to see
how one idea from the space of a digital text might bridge to other conversations online this is something that's really unique about social annotation as a digital reading practice in fact the ability to pull information from the
web and see how that's actively engage in interaction online spaces we'll be focusing on this center sort of third category of engagement here creativity because social annotation i think most uniquely
helps activate for readers the ability again not just to respond in a passive way to text but to really be an active respondent to be thinking about original and unique questions that might emerge from the
group consensus making process or the group differences right the kinds of um the divergences in the moment of conversation that can happen uniquely within and from the springboard of the
margins of course social annotation also helps us contextualize information when we're online we have this unique ability to see how the text itself comes from a larger
online framework whether that's from a certain kind of publication or from an author with a certain set of subjectivities and perspectives finally social annotation might allow us to engage in contemplation as well the ability to
think about why we're reading what we're reading and how our media and our environment shapes the ways that we're engaging with text when we do paper-based marginalia or paper-based annotation we're aware too of the material
limitations the ways in which physical margins fonts spacing how that impacts where and what we can write in social annotation online we might have some new affordances
exploded for us the capacity to write more to engage with media to annotate not just with text but with visuals that might change our orientation so in many ways we could talk about how socialization ties even more deep with
all five forms these uh ways of engagement but we're gonna focus on creativity today because i do think that this is where social annotation really particularly shines as a way to help students develop digital literacy
so let's unpack that a little bit more and i'm gonna unpack that through a metaphor so when we think of being creative when we think of being original when we think of helping students construct new arguments or ideas based on text we
might first think of the concept of sort of individual and unique genius right and that can feel like a really heavy lift that can feel very high stakes but i like to think of helping support students in social annotation is kind of more like taking on a sewing project
hence my image here of some um thread and some a ruler i think i call those uh that tool in the corner scissors but this is how you know i'm not really an expert sewer i don't know what those are but the point is
when you are sewing a piece of clothing you have a pattern that you're working with you're not just creating something entirely from scratch and if you're a novice sewer you're probably adhering to that pattern in a very strict way if you're an expert
if you're a contestant on project runway for example and you're creating new clothing entirely you might use a pattern as your foundation but you may riff or build upon that as a more expert navigator i think social annotation
works in a very similar way there are constraints there are conventions there are patterns to follow so to speak and that can help students who may be encountering a novel practice
really become much more comfortable and confident in that space that is social annotation provides a unique form of scaffolding to engaging with digital texts that allow students to feel like they can be respondents to in part of the
reading without having to create something entirely new without having to do something entirely derivative so how exactly is this a component of digital literacy let's break that down a little bit more
and i'm going to be kind of framing this with a longish quote from julie corro who's a digital literacy expert and she defines successful online readers in three different parts i'm going to
talk through all three parts with us and tie this into social annotation and specifically the act of creating new ideas via social annotation so quora writes that successful online readers actively and flexibly regulate integrate
and adapt their use of digital reading writing and communication strategies within a multitude of digital contexts so even though social annotation is but one context the idea of actively and flexibly
regulating integrating and adapting their use has a lot of um relevance for social annotation specifically because the ways in which different readers come into the text because the different kinds of texts
that might be interfaced with social annotations from pdfs to active websites that might have multimedia there is a process of thinking about how students might bring different sets of interactions to those spaces
b successful online readers approach online reading tasks with an expectation that literacy contexts and their associated context cues will rapidly change in ways they cannot imagine
so with something like a static pdf that students might be reading individually and not in a social context these changes might not be so unexpected right the change might just be simply navigating through and encountering new ideas
but when you bring in that social component when other students might be part of and part of the part and parcel of the experience that's really a component of building digital literacy here where students have to think about how
their own responses might change how their own navigation of the interface itself might change when new voices and news perspectives join in in the digital margins so as students engage in social annotation
they have to be reorienting their own mindset potentially not only changing their perspective but changing the ways again they navigate through the text and find ways to be part of the conversation even as
uh sound metaphorical sound really because this would come in the form of text but sound and discussion become a part of the space and finally see successful online readers demonstrate resilience cognitive
flexibility and a self-directed confidence in transforming strategies used in more familiar contexts into new strategies that are more useful in less familiar context and i built up this last part of coreos quote because i
think it's the most relevant in many ways for thinking of creative social annotation practice as digital literacy development that is annotation contributions to annotations don't just happen
magically students do need some framing they need those sewing patterns to get into it to provide the scaffolding to contribute to the conversation to develop original thought and when it comes to interacting
in a social annotation system or framework they might be taking familiar context of reading in other spaces perhaps in print spaces but perhaps also in offline spaces
as in word processors or pdf editors to contribute to the social context and adapt and become that flexible resilient reader that qaro is speaking to here so what does this look like exactly in
practice um well in my book i outline four distinct goals of social annotation activities which is to develop shared community dialogue around a reading assignment understand the variety of strategies and approaches towards annotation as a
reading practice showcase the diversity of perspectives and interpretations of a reading possible within a class community and spark questions and inspire future inquiry through social annotation practice so to achieve those goals we might do a
few different things one we'll want to start by coming to some shared understanding about what social annotation is and to achieve that flexibility that quora was speaking to to develop digital literacy this might
mean demonstrating showing what social annotation looks like perhaps both in a print context in a digital context bringing in context that might be both less familiar and more familiar so students can bring their own perspective
to this work some prompts to do this might be very simple but these are the kind of sewing patterns that you might use as part of these uh social annotation assignments things like which parts of the reading were the most interesting to you
which section of the reading did you have a question about or not understand which parts the reading surprised you and why or which part of the reading connected with something you learned in class or earlier in the term how'd that section reinforce or advance
what you've learned in class these are not particularly novel examples but they are ones again that can activate unique knowledge that prompt students in ways that go beyond just saying comment contribute we need a little bit
of framing to build in that resiliency and flexibility and once that happens we can then get really imaginative about the types of assignments we're crafting you might have students create something like a visual outline of a reading they're mapping out the different sets
of highlighted moments in the social annotation space you could have heat maps of popular ideas created once you see which clusters ideas are most popularly connected to and you might even use
annotation with the benefits of being online to spur creations of things like mini podcasts or audio essays in response to the reading now i know i went through this very quickly but i am at time so i'll just say that creativity is
a way to do something with the reading so we hear that question of what do i do but we'll build something new work with our patterns and create novel creations from there thank you i'm gonna go ahead and stop sharing and pass it off to uh the next presenter
thank you thanks janae that was great and that was like perfectly on time i didn't even have to do like a wave my hands think now thank you um okay i am so excited to
talk more about this we're going to talk to charisse or cherise mcbride is going to share next and she is a digital literacies researcher and teacher educator at uc berkeley's graduate school of
education she's a scholar of digital literacies and pedagogy and her most recent article is exploring the edges of collegiality across case analysis towards humanizing teachers connected
learning which was published in pedagogies and i will hand it over to cherise so i am going to share along those same lines of thinking about digital literacy development
and particularly in this case around how teachers how we see teachers making their thinking visible so let me pull up mine here so the work that i've done um you'll see that i'm going to
contextualize it in a larger project which many of you here may be familiar with and that is the marginal syllabus project i'll be sharing a bit more about that but essentially it has offered an opportunity for us to
engage with wide audiences around digital annotation social annotation and allowing us to ask questions of what is annotation what's the significance of it so in my work with teachers i work
with pre-service teachers and in-service teachers we're asking questions like what does it mean to annotate often we think of the image of writing in the margins and that's something that teachers can pull on in their own repertoires of practice as
they continue to build out their digital literacy skills and as they think pedagogically about uh what this will what this might look like for their students and particularly in the context
um a contemporary context of our world that is becoming increasingly digitally mediated um who gets to annotate interestingly i had a workshop where teachers said oh that's an interesting question because it presents it as an opportunity
whereas in many classes it can sometimes feel like an obligation or a responsibility like oh it's not who gets to annotate in that case it's sort of um who has to annotate um so we're thinking more broadly about
annotation as an opportunity or as a privilege as we're able to make our mark on the world and speak with um with authors and become authors ourselves this is a key one for today what are the risks of annotating
what actually happens um when we annotate um for us individually and as a group and what are some of the possibly negative feelings or experiences that might come up with that where does annotation happen and what
are the benefits um so these are just you know framing questions that i continue to think about um as we're leading educators through annotation practices but again that key today i want to talk about is what are
the risks of annotating if we're thinking about annotation as thinking publicly especially social digital social annotation there are certain risks that come with that and so drawing from
the work um i'll skip that one drawing from the work with marginal syllabus i want us to think about how that um what those risks end up looking like and how we respond to them so if you're
not familiar with it marginal syllabus is a partnership between three key um organizations and that's the national council of teachers of english which publish um the articles the the journals that have the articles that we
use to annotate the national writing project and hypothesis and so what it involves is having a series of reading lists that we will put out publicly for folks to
dive into to annotate to uh markup and share with one another and to use in their own education settings so that might be a teacher ed or even in informal learning groups the
key is that we are creating space to have a widened conversation with authors with students with teachers and we do that in the margins of text
online again using hypothesis but we also do that on the on the website um sorry i'm not ready that um we do that on the website through oral conversations where we
actually speak with authors and give them an opportunity to share the impetus behind their work and some of the ways that their writing came to be so it really um it really again expands that notion of
authorship that i was just describing um allowing us to see behind that like invisible author that so often exists in academic writing so i would encourage you to you know continue to look into that if you're interested
but i'm drawing from our definition here of um we have a a graphic on our website that talks about why annotate and i really appreciate this definition
um that frames it as a relationship so annotation is observing remarking noting down it's the act of marking it's an act of love right marking up a text is an act of love because of one's commitment to stay
in relationship with the creator and with other readers and observers and that's what really comes forth in our marginal syllabus project because we are again directly talking to authors and we are continuing as observers and
authors ourselves to further those conversations and that does take commitment it does take risk and so my teaching context as i as i've shared a bit
is thinking about teacher ed across graduate level mostly and thinking about digitally connected teacher networks and um also using some local networks to kind of model these
practices so one of the assignments that i gave my pre-service teachers was coming from the marginal syllabus project and it's available on educator innovator if you're interested in seeing
exactly where this comes from but um there's an open access link to a piece by watson and boehmer that really focuses on how place and space is enacted by you through their digital composing
practices um they particularly made songs um that gave tribute to their home city of detroit and so what we had them do was um you know my teachers as learners
i had them engage in annotating that article on hypothesis and then reflecting on their own learning process um i do want to
also just mention that as they shared their you know as they shared their thinking about it uh they did have a specific prompt that was around um well
initially we we gave them just an open kind of uh conversation and again janae gave us some really good scaffolds that we might use in these settings but our our invitation to them would just mark up the text as you're reading it
and so you'll see here um as an example you know this is what it looks like on hypothesis where you have the open access link and then to the right are some of those annotations and i'll get more into those but i just wanted to show what that looks like
um again when they are on the uh they got they got a chance to look at the um educator innovator website and see the video of the authors um as they
talked about their work in conversation with other educators and then afterwards is when they responded with this prompt on canvas and a discussion board so it was just an opportunity for them to
share what their experience was as they engaged in marginal syllabus and how did those tools basically extend their repertoires of practice either with annotation with the digital tools being in a community of
learners um and then some of them they had the total option to opt out and some um you know we asked them to share what what had been their broader experiences of annotation and other
discussion boards and how they might apply this to their practice so i want to just highlight some of the risks that were um emergent from those reflections and i just um invite us to pay attention to
the you know affective responses and then the ways that students reflect it on their own um you know burgeoning familiarity with the with the digital tool so someone says
the public nature of my comments made me feel both guarded and excited to see who would respond and what those responses would be i personally do not like to use social media to find connections with strangers
uh someone else's this is really um they say to be honest i'm still wary of digital tools and find myself focusing on the aspects of the face-to-face interaction that are lost when we go into these
digital conversations i want to note this one too because the group that i was working with here would be typically characterized as quote unquote digital natives a term at which i um cringe because
it does offer it offers a really flattening way of looking at how um people within a surge age certain age bracket might be experiencing digital tools and we hear we see here that even though this person would fall in
you know that category they express some weariness around the tools and then again someone says i kind of hate it using the hypothesis tool it was a bit arduous and intrusive to have to install
something on my browser um and so and then also discomfort i will mention that when we have that conversation around um the tool itself and the terms and conditions like this
this student brings up we do talk about the affordances of hypothesis as an open tool where you can take your your data with you and things like that just a side note so my question um is how do we help learners then navigate
some of these risks of thinking in public and i will share briefly um this is some of the work that came out of our um recent article anna smith christopher rogers and i are thinking about discourses of
collegiality and this is what we term some of the practices we found teachers engaging in digitally mediated spaces particularly on twitter that's where we studied this work so we found practices across these three
continua that we define as humanizing practices and i think we can learn a lot from these frames to think about how we might use digital annotation so these discourses
of collegiality include how teachers are sharing with one another how they exercise care and how they move into experimentation and framing the work that they do online as experimentation um the continua is
representative of you know the far end is more humanizing practices and on the left is um you know those that that teachers themselves spoke to as not feeling
very humanizing in their spaces um and so just i in this last bit that i have i want to highlight um what that was as i as i'm analyzing the work that my teachers have done on hypothesis
some of the sharing that we see um is really afforded by the multimodal aspects and the ability to link to other um pieces so in this piece the watson and bamer piece uh you'll see it highlighted in red
there that the verses is the program that was named and um you'll see in the margins there that you had experienced and novice teachers sharing
about that project and what that prompts for them so um dog tracks shares um a link to the soundcloud so students can actually hear or readers could actually hear what was
produced in that project and then you'll see others who are saying thank you for sharing this is awesome it gives a new dimension to the text so that's just an example
and where you see also pre-service teachers sharing that they value seeing others perspectives um instead of just reflecting on the reading on their own and and that's an example of that pedagogical what's called pedagogically productive
teacher talk um this is from left stein and others in 2020 who share about how teachers are sort of part of our practice is engaging in conversations that help us
to of course think about how we're going to teach and that's one of those humanizing practices that we identified in our in our other work on digitally mediated spaces so the sharing that occurs becomes really
meaningful care is also exercised as as folks in this example um begin to ask questions with one another again this points to
some of janae's um framings i really appreciated that around like um not meaning making not just being an individual process right it's a a collective work and so um someone asked like
about the difference between space and place and then you'll see a conversation between hannah mk and mushu one two three about their meanderings around what that might what that might mean so they're exercising this is what we characterize
as exercising care with one another um as they you know nurture their learning rather than just you know put things out there and um hope that others take it up they're actually engaging in a dialogue together
um and the last one around experimentation we see um the i think what i want to highlight there is that experimentation involves feeling the discomfort but then moving into a space
where there is some generativity that's acknowledged in that and continuing so this this example highlights that i know i'm getting over on time so i'm gonna um i'll just these are available to you but
i think this is the final thing just to leave with you is that as we continue to humanize thinking in public which can be a risky endeavor it's important to acknowledge the risk and then to think about the potential for productive struggle
um and that's you know these the aspects that were highlighted these widened perspectives that teachers get through the space and when i say teachers that's teachers as learners so it could be applied across um different populations um
more engagement and then the ability to write for an authentic audience and um generate work and talk that is meaningful for their practice so i think that's it for me thank you
all thank you so much teresa that was so interesting i can't wait to talk more about this okay the last one or the last presenter we have for today is
paul shacked and he is a professor of english director of the center for digital learning at suny geneseo um he is also the director of digital throw which is a digital humanities initiative
that promotes public engagement and collaborative annotation of the works of david throw we're going to get to hear a little bit more about that um right now so i will pass it over to you before i freeze again
okay great thanks mary uh give me a second to share my screen so henry david thoreau is famous for going to walden pond in order as he put it to live deliberately when we ask students to
annotate we want them to do that deliberately too and we want to be deliberate ourselves about the annotation assignments we give one way to be deliberate about annotation is to do it understanding
that different types of annotation presuppose different audiences and different objectives engage different cognitive capacities and operate within different epistemic frameworks
a deliberate annotation would be one where against the background of that understanding you choose what kind of annotation you want to write and in writing it you know what you're trying to do
similarly a deliberate annotation assignment would be one that's at least designed to solicit the kind of annotation i want my students to write and at best designed to sharpen their understanding
not just of the text they're annotating but of annotation itself as a practice so i've seen various taxonomies of annotation i know you have two um the list that you're seeing here some
of the items will look familiar from um janae's list this isn't intended to be novel or definitive uh or comprehensive simply to capture some of the variety of things that readers may be doing
when they annotate explicating the text providing context for it arguing either with the author or another reader conversing with another reader without arguing making some personal connection to the
text maybe sending a message which is what thorough is doing on my cover slide if you noticed some some writing at the top there he scrawled some instructions to the publisher on a page proof of wald in there or
expressing an opinion as william blake does here on the title page of joshua reynolds's discourses on art where blake has written this man was hired to depress art this in the opinion of will blake
my proofs of this opinion are given in the following notes h.j jackson's book marginalia looks comprehensively at the different ways readers write in their books and it made me reflect on the fact that
even something as brief as a penciled nb in the margin that you see here in my copy of jackson's book or a double check mark or as in the lower right an asterisk in a circle personal symbols that i use
when i'm reading these marks have specific meaning for a particular reader and they could also be considered annotations of a sort at the i annotate conference two years ago
gardner campbell gave a keynote address in which he talked about the potential of annotation to make use of students knowledge emotions a term he borrowed from psychologist paul sylvia these are emotions like confusion
surprise interest and awe and i noticed in some of janae's prompts she was looking for students to tap into some of those emotions as well these are emotions campbell said which
foster learning exploring and reflecting by forcing us to make some kind of appraisal of our reading experience campbell's keynote made me see annotations like these left by a reader on the gutenberg.org
walden using hypothesis with new eyes very intriguing quote that's for sure these annotations aren't analytical or informative but emotive and evaluative they're not oriented
outward to other readers except perhaps as markers planted on the trail of the text that say to others you ought to look at this they're more concerned to register this particular reader's immediate response
before hearing campbell's keynote i would have seen annotations like these as frankly somewhat superficial at least as a way to fulfill an annotation assignment afterwards though i began to think about
deliberately soliciting annotations like these in hopes they might make a valuable starting point for deeper exploration even for either for the student who left the comment or for another student
whose attention is drawn to the passage by the comment i'll come back to campbell in a bit but now i want to pull back in our thinking about annotation types to consider two broad types of annotation one that i'll call scholarly and another
that i'll call responsive scholarly annotations are generally intended to share knowledge or a highly informed perspective and are usually directed to an external audience either other scholars or general readers
whereas responsive annotations register reactions of one kind or another and may either be intended to be read by others or only intended to be read by the annotator so i run a website that provides a
platform for social annotation of thoros works and a while back it occurred to me that the structure of the site offered a way to do some kind of crude comparison of the language of scholarly annotation with that of responsive annotation by
simply looking at what readers have written there i could do this because when the site launched it was seeded with the scholarly annotations from a print annotated edition of walden from 1995 edited by the late thorough
scholar walter harding we simply put these print annotations in the margin as comments by harding when we launched the site since then some thousands of comments
have been left by other readers almost all of them high school and college students typically organized into groups that i will set up in answer to an instructor's request and so here are some of the words here
to start are the 50 most common words in harding's comments visualized in a word cloud walden and concord where walden pond is located are the most frequently occurring not
surprisingly words like book journal and less prominently edition are suggestive of harding's effort to put walden in literary context there are also words that point to time place and history as contexts
boston england century years emerson channing the words known according referring suggests and probably seem to speak a
scholarly effort to establish responsibly and with proper attribution the scope of what can be reasonably asserted about thorough and walden we can think of these words as both reflecting and establishing
the epistemic framework within which harding is operating fifty most common words of all other readers combined are quite different thoro is no surprise though it's interesting that it's much larger than
walden and that pond and concorde aren't here at all many of the predominant words here nature life think people world live best speak an interest in
identifying key themes and thoros work the broad difference in emphasis between harding and other readers that we find looking at word frequencies globally become even more dramatically apparent when we look
separately at different parts of speech here for example are harding's nouns and here are other readers nouns harding again
other readers hear harding's verbs we see our friends suggest and know again along with quote refer no think describe and say
other readers use think and say a lot but also and also describe but also mean compare understand believe feel remind
enjoy become change make and live some of these words point to reader's efforts to interpret what does thorough believe how is he asking us to live others seem more reflective of reader's
efforts to articulate their own responses what they feel about thorough what passages in walden remind them of what they do and don't agree with either in thoro's writing or in the comments of other readers
there's an inwardness to some of this vocabulary that seems largely absent from harding's here are harding's adjectives there are other reader's adjectives
harding again other readers the adjectives seem to offer the most dramatic evidence of two very different readerly orientations the one principally concerned with history and the other with states of mind
values and emotions we see the same difference in orientation from a somewhat different perspective if we compare heartings and other readers longish words in this case words of 15 letters or more on the assumption that such words are
one way to get a handle on the intellectual content of the comments harding is interested in historical time and in general it seems in numbers he seems more interested in the concrete
than the abstract but there are also some abstractions in this list including but not surprisingly transcendentalism transcendentalist transcendentalists other readers did reference one century
at least and not surprisingly they had these words in common with harding but they had a lot more 15 letters plus words altogether and this list is kind of interesting again what they seem to reference
primarily is the realm of behavior emotion judgment and finally the vocabulary of the non-harding readers seems all together more conceptual than harding's these are other readers
uh phrases or combination words well i want to come back now to campbell's 2019 i annotate i annotate keynote i annotate keynote
and remind you that it was in light of his case for using annotation that to get students exploring knowledge emotions that this slide suddenly looked different to me campbell's keynote also gave me a new way to think about the prominence of
that word interesting in the non-harding adjectives so the next time i wrote some annotation prompts for my students reading walden i decided to lean into knowledge emotions with prompt like
prompts like these leave a comment on anything in the bean field that makes you feel joy wonder confusion or anger explain your reaction find a passage in walden that underwent a revision you
find interesting explaining what's interesting to you about the revision again you'll note the similarity with some of some of janae's prompts um but i i wasn't satisfied still
and it was that word those words explain and explaining that i wasn't satisfied with they somehow i felt got in the way of the immediacy and authenticity that i was looking for with my prompts it's not that i don't think students
should reflect on how they feel when they read something but somehow that word explain just felt too much like a teacher's word one that almost seems to be a demand for justification we might
think about in this context about sharice's thoughts about the risks of annotation right what if my explanation is not good enough would students be honest about their reactions i wonder if they had to
justify them and then looking at some examples of how non-harding readers use the word interesting i came upon this it's actually not a comment from a student but a comment from a colleague
at another institution with whom i had team taught an online course in which we had students read and annotate walden what i love about deborah's comment is that it expresses a knowledge emotion but also predicates
something about it it says what's interesting in a way that makes the comment more than just an interjection more than just huh interesting and instead a possible jumping off point for
analysis and yet it doesn't feel like a forced explanation of anything so here's the set of prompts i plan to use the next time i ask students to annotate a text and
i'll end with these and i'm looking forward to the discussion about all our presentations the prompt would be to write a single sentence that takes a form like this
it's interesting that i'm surprised that it's confusing to me that it's funny or strange that i like that it bothers me that i wonder why i'm looking forward
to trying these out and seeing what i get from students okay thank you i feel like i'm seeing some feedback that suggests that that people actually all i could see was you know my own
slides i had no idea if i was still connected great there are some comments in the chat that's like blowing my mind everyone likes it um i so i'm so excited to talk about all
of these three presentations together because i think they all work so well together and i have some questions i have some things i think that all of you will be able to answer and feed off some of the things that you
brought up in your talk so maybe i'll just start us off with my observations and questions and then we can see what other folks have in the q a and the chat too um so i am so interested in the common theme
of building confidence in the annotators so that could be you know teacher educators have a whole this is a whole like another level of confidence you have to build because they're the ones that have to go in
the teachers have to go and now and then build it in their students the students have to you know come to terms with how to you know feel comfortable putting themselves out there and then the instructor has to model that creating those patterns that janae said
um so i think all of you have some thing to say about that so what's the i mean paul you sort of ended with this idea of these prompts that are seemingly simple but really sort of provide this jumping off point for
um analytical annotations or you know uh reactions and all that stuff so how best do we if educators or facilitators how do we go about building the confidence um in our annotators i'll open that up
to anybody who wants to answer well i'm the only one whose mic isn't muted so oh i'll try to start us off um you know i i think one important
thing um that we heard in in some of the other presentations has to do with students familiarity with the interface that problematic phrase digital natives and the problematic assumption that our students
know what they're doing and are comfortable navigating these interfaces and are comfortable about data questions you know what's uh what's being done with my data and
and so on um so i think one really important step to building confidence is to um be patient with them help them understand the interfaces
make it clear i mean i always share with my students how i can get discombobulated by interfaces the things that go wrong for me i make a point of having some things go wrong in class demonstrations so they
see that things can go wrong for me um but then when it comes to the annotations itself yeah i for me um a key theme that has emerged in in my thinking from my experience with student
annotations is to make sure that they don't feel like they're being asked to to write an essay or or you know do the kind of writing
they're expected to do with essays so i encourage them to be informal to leave short annotations they can always come back and leave more and then the last thing i'll mention sharice pointed out the power
of links and embedded media in annotations so i encourage them to provide you know share links or embed youtube videos embed sound cloud files um whatever it is that they may want to
share along along those lines that's great yeah that got me thinking too about um how we can think about the literacy moves that that
readers are making and um emphasize that those moves can be made across their tool agnostic right we can use other other tools and give them a chance to choose so um like the practice that we did of
saying you can use hypothesis and we understand that brings up certain considerations um um being able to identify the risks that students are feeling and then um talk through them and i think that's really what
like digital literacy digital fluency is about is being able to navigate digital tools as well so now that you've thought about this is to the students now that you've thought about um the risks and you've been able to
maybe try out some of these things um identify which one really works for you right you can do this on google docs you can do this um and other ways right on using hashtags or padlet or a whole variety of things but
really highlight the the skills that we want to develop and then i i just want to say that it's important to emphasize that this is needed work
like the ability to support public thinking to support collaborative knowledge development is a practice that's so desperately needed um given where we are like learning
online um you know things have transferred over to the digital environment and we see the proliferation of like of course misinformation and hate speech and these practices we we have to figure out
how to teach um these scaffolds around visible thinking um and working through those those risks together i really appreciate paul and sharisa's
responses to this prompt i'll just add one other thought here um which is really to say that it's also sort of work i think unpacking with your students from an uh affect level what being confident
means to them right um so if we're asking how do we evoke confidence um there's a lot of work we could do to kind of understand prior experience um with annotation and how social annotation this this sort of
the risk of moving to this public space that both charisse and paul spoken to how that might um be different for them how that might be changing what they are experiencing um so really knowing
that we have this capacity to build upon that that prior knowledge should then scaffold to that public-facing um skill experience um especially that cherise is sort of speaking to in terms of the importance
of here right we know that there's tremendous value in doing this um but for students that might not be so obvious if they're not releasing help built upon what they might have done prior um the other piece i think that we can
think about to that end is is also creating options too for students right so from you know both paul and sheree spoke to the interface as a potential limiting factor um
to confidence with the task but there may be true accessibility limitations as well um there may be you know especially for students who might be engaging in annotation tasks with different kinds of devices there
might just be things kind of outside of our scope of understanding that we can we can see right away so knowing that we can give students those options as different pathways into the task as much as possible could also help in developing confidence
students see that we're giving them um those the freedom of choice to engage in the task in ways that sort of work for them too wow okay yay i um i also love what's happening in the chat with people
thinking about incorporating reflection into annotation like thinking about why why we're annotating like what's the purpose of bringing annotation into the classroom setting and that's something that i think sharice
when you were talking i came up with the question of like how do we establish the purpose of annotation and do students play a role in establishing the purpose like are they
the p a part of this like figuring out how we're gonna do this why we're going to do this or are they just sort of people we have to get on board or however that is like leaning into discomfort um and to start their annotation process
or are they like you know part of the building from the beginning um i wonder if you all have any thoughts about that um about that question i can just say briefly that definitely
and learning is going to be more consequential when it is situated in student experiences their desires where they want to go with this you know and so these opportunities to
generate like our frames together you know we've seen from my co-presenters here that there are frames we can come up with and i think they're going to be contextual right like what is the what are we doing in this class what are some of the disciplinary
um dispositions that we want to to think about and practice if we're in a chemistry class and we want to um be finding ways you know to identify evidence or hypothesize in certain ways like those can become our our
collaborative frames and i think in that practice of identifying them together we will learn a lot as educators like about what really matters and that's what uh what matters to our students and and i think that's really where our
pedagogy needs to emerge from that student to build off charissa's point too i think that um it can be very helpful for students to see just kind of like different kinds of authentic examples of
what this can look like either based on their experiences or even you know depending on disciplinary context or professional context in which an annotation task is happening you know just literally what do what do
other thinkers do with with this what does this look like um how do we support um these kind of dialogues that might be kind of carried on in in authentic contexts um i think one
of the challenges we continue to face um in education is making that transferable connection very clear um between sort of i mean this is not just true today's has been true for a long time instead of translating academic literacies um to other kinds of
literacies that might have benefit or value um in situated an authentic learning context too so i love that we're focusing on
metacognition and reflection among other things i think it's so important for us to help our students understand what they're doing when they're doing it um and i love
janae's idea of having them look at other examples of annotation on a social annotation platform you know they're that's relatively easy to do have them look at other people's
annotations but but listening to this conversation um i had an idea that i hadn't had before that i'm interested in trying out which is simply to have students um rifle through their
own annotations uh because because we all annotate right i mean this is one of the interesting things about the challenge of using annotation as a teaching tool um it may seem foreign to students to
ask them to do this they haven't done it in this context in this way but they've all done it and to ask them to to maybe um you know to to bring to a class meeting
um annotations that they put in the margins of a print text and maybe try to do their own sort of taxonomy of their own annotations like what was i doing when i was
uh making these marks in the margin try to categorize them and and share those out it would be one way to start getting them to be more reflective about their practice and and ease them in
to the to the um situated annotation we want them to do in our classes that's really great i am so i was thinking when i was listening to you paul about my ap
english teacher in high school who just said you have to mark up this reading and she didn't any sort of explanation on what that meant it was just like she just came around and made sure we had notes to prove that we read and it was always
so confusing you know like what about but like seeing like well there's a like there's symbols there's things that we write or underline when we're writing just or annotating just for us versus when we're talking to each other
so yeah there's a whole bunch of things to keep in mind so yeah and if i maybe all right mary just i'm just building off your thoughts i may i think one thing that's really valuable but you just said too is that annotation can so easily become part of a hidden
curriculum right that students who learn how to annotate have had access to certain discourses that other students have not had right and we could probably track
that hidden curriculum you know on our spectrum of you know of privileges right um so i think the more that we can make visible um the ways that we discursively engage in annotated spaces too
it's also an equity-based practice if we're giving these kinds of assignments so yeah just throwing that out there yeah that's a really good point like even and that relates to what paul was saying too about the response like even inviting people to say that's
interesting that can be so powerful because then you get people into the conversation that weren't there before yeah um so there is a question in the q a i wanted to bring up um
and it's about kind of logistics which form of hypothesis or annotation software do you all prefer is it the one that's loaded into the lms um the free one do you have any pluses
and minuses of either that you want to chat about i think this is kind of okay you go first i'll go after you mine is brief i don't
i don't really have um preference per se just noting that using it within the lms is private um rather than public and that's that's
meaningful for in its own right you know being able to have those scaffolded environments again learning to navigate um these practices without some of those additional high stakes that might come in a public space so
that's i guess an affordance of the the lms yes i'll i'll build on that this is my technologist
cap on um which is that charisse makes a really good point about the private nature in the lms you can create private groups um within the browser-based version two outside the lms but the lms adds that additional layer of security
right so if you are concerned with things like using single sign-on authentication to access course information if you're tying uh the use of annotation to any of your grading based practices there are ferpa
implications that you may want to think about when you use it in the lms so specifically you know if you're going to give any kind of assessment-based data within your annotation practice it is
much safer to do so behind a single sign authentication paywall um not a paywall login wall what am i saying um then it is to just kind of have students create free accounts and and be building from that perspective um
i'd also encourage you again with technologist cap on if you're trying to finance this question to talk to your campus it group um or your campus librarians you know whoever is kind of the administrators for these kinds of um
lti integrations uh they're going to know a lot about the testing and security practices and accessibility practices that can also help you determine uh which version will be the best choice for your students for protecting them and
your instructional design staff might also be great for helping you determine how you might scaffold these kinds of tasks right so how important is the annotation to some of your core assessment-based practices in the class um
might be another factor to think about um in term and what kind of feelings do students have about the lms that matters too um in terms of whether that integration
um is supportive of your pedagogy yeah i'll just say um i think that the you know they're they're all great um they have different somewhat different affordances i
you can have students annotate in google docs and that that can work but the key thing is what we've been talking about making sure that whatever platform
is being used students have control over their comments whether they're seen publicly or not and so the the lms provides one way to do that but um
hypothesis allows for private groups um where you know the the comments could only be seen by members of the group i've set that up um the readers thorough website uses comment press and
um the groups that i set up for classes there uh can be private or they can be public they can also be showcase groups so that the comments can be seen by the public but not interacted
with by the by the public um i just think you know students ability to have control over the visibility of their comments is a key thing the last thing i'll say about this is um
i've watched with excitement the development of hypothesis over a number of years maybe five six years ago i had a really interesting email exchange with jeremy dean at hypothesis
where he was wondering why i wanted to use comment press which is a plug into wordpress because it groups the
um it attaches the comments to paragraphs and not to um to strings of of letters in the text so it's it's
hard in comment press to tie a comment to a targeted bit of text in a long paragraph in particular that can be a bit confusing um and it was a really
interesting email exchange i won't go in the into the details but um i i i like them both for different reasons i think somehow in some ways when the comments are
organized at the paragraph level it can be a little bit easier to navigate your way through it that it's not as overwhelming as it is when you see all that yellow highlighted text but i've i've had
students use both and the important thing is that they're annotating that's great yeah there's um there's a lot to keep in mind actually when you all started talking like i realized how complicated that question actually is because
issues of control and privacy and and equity and access and all that stuff it's like all those considerations matter so that's great um so i have one more question i have many questions but i'll ask one
more so it was something else that sharie said when you said you invite the creator the author into annotations to discuss things with um the annotators or the readers um that's really interesting and
something i wanted to hear just a little bit more about what that does to change the dynamics of a discussion i teach history so a lot of my creators are dead dead and gone it's like like you know if
i'm annotating a primary source by thomas jefferson there's like a power in that because students can really tell jefferson what they think and he's not gonna talk back to them but there's just like an interesting thing that comes up when you're actually
humanizing the creator like there's there's somebody behind this text and there's a different element of the discussion that can emerge from that too so i wanted to hear from all what that what that adds to the conversation or any
yeah if you know throw is also dead so what kind of things are we talking about when we're annotating historical texts versus others well i can speak to what it's look like in marginal syllabus
and i think um the larger question of authorship really brings in some um great you know pieces around like digital literacy development of the readers and understanding the
writing process or that you know this this writing is a process and um and we've seen that with um i know in some of the reflections i've seen um
students have said i didn't i didn't think about my um this i didn't think about the readers of the text or the writers of the text this way and so they get to like see them they get to see what other educators
um are talking to them about in person you know on the video um and i think there's also the power of um being able to take those those transcripts and kind of think about
like from the from a pre-service teacher perspective when they see other educators in conversation with these authors that also helps them to think about like um their pedagogical practices um so that's one that's one piece of it
but there's there there are great benefits to um being able to have that conversation going but i think the pieces around what happens um you know with with authors who aren't
here is also important for us so yeah you know i i one of the things i find i'm not sure whether i'm answering the question exactly but one of the things i find really compelling about um having students do
annotation is that it creates the opportunity to speak back to the writer as though the writer were alive even if the writer
is not right in a way that's a it's a bit different from what you're doing if you write an essay you're also kind of speaking back to the writer or we're speaking about you know you're in conversation with the
writer when you want to analyze what you think the writer is up to but not in the direct way that you are when you are annotating i think this is also part of a customary annotation practice
you know you're reading a jane austen novel and you write you know yes exclamation point in the in the margin or no or what you know but it's it's as though that person is present
for you and i think annotation makes that happen in a way that the the conventional essay about an author doesn't um i've uh
i've had students um connect with thorough scholars both in the margins of some of these texts and then you know by by video chat after they've
gotten to know them a little bit in the margins um that can be really powerful as well so it's not connecting not connecting you know with you're not bringing the author back to life then the last thing i'll say
is um you know i mentioned that we we launched the reader thorough site with walter harding's annotations put in as comments and there was something about that in particular
when we created a little avatar for him um it happened then you know and not really before that suddenly it was like he was alive there in the text speaking to the readers of the text in a
way that i don't think it feels he's doing if you're reading his print annotations in a print copy of the text these are wonderful examples thank you
for both of these uh paul and charisse um i think the only thing i'll mention is just when you're working with historical texts versus um contemporary texts you know paul has already listed the number of like imaginative and creative
ways that you'd kind of bridge the past and the present um and so i think another kind of imaginative way you could do this and think about this is by thinking about all kinds of artifacts from historical context that
you could bring into the annotation process things like maps things like um you know archival footage or documentation it depends on how
historical we're talking here i suppose um you know there's all kinds of linking or kind of forms of connection that you can do um to larger historical uh context that can really make that historical conversation very rich even if the
authors themselves are no longer alive you can do the same thing with contemporary texts of cour of course as well um but the point is i think with the historical work you have this real uh opportunity
to think about how written dialogue um sustains certain kinds of conversations and that sort of texts are not sort of these like neutral floating isolated sort of moments in time
but are part of a larger fabric um historically speaking there's this power this is power of being able to annotate and think about uh historical documents is paul's point being alive still as you continue to kind of unpack
and bridge and think about what those implications are for our contemporary uh context yeah i love all i'd like to say one last thing around the the having folks in person or
having folks who are alive and annotating their text one key consideration that we always like center in this work is permission and so being able to make sure that the authors um have you know granted that permission
to share their work and to have it in common in conversation really helps to um again demonstrate like that practice of um like pure
you know i wouldn't say peer review exactly but you know like refining our thoughts together um are i think they're embodying that and we also i honor that and i share that with the readers that i'm introducing to this work that
they've given us permission and this is going to keep furthering the the um the development of these ideas um we can take that up they they're gonna take that up and so
it becomes again generative practice um but reciprocity and permission are really key values of of mine as i care yeah that's really great that just builds up the whole i mean the
community as a whole because you're asking everybody is exchanging on you know everybody's getting their permission to take the risks right and to build up that um there is another question in the q a
so i'll ask that um so it's from chris aldrich says i am curious if anyone on the panel is helping students move their data thoughts into personal platforms to take their notes with them and build on or expand upon them and what does that look like in the long
term for students that's a great question i'll kick us off on this because i'm actually going to have to leave the panel in a few minutes i have a schedule conflict right after this all i'll kind of say my piece listen and
then i'll have to leave but um the short answer is yes um we have a lot of conversations in the classes i've taught about options for transferability um and i think options are always key right you
want students of agency over their their thoughts because annotations are a form of intellectual property so we do want to be mindful of students sort of having ownership and agency over their ideas um so one way we'll talk about that is
by helping students sort of learn about a variety of uh tools both that were supported by the institution and those that you know may not that might be more personal proprietary platforms um how they might share or save things
how they might archive their knowledge what those choices look like both online and offline um in other words and with paper right reason i talk about note-taking too something you can still do in an analog capacity as well
um but present those options um in a way that honors again what students might value from their notes too um so sometimes so usually this is for me just kind of like i will create like a sort of toolkit in
the classes i'll teach with just like hey here are some tools to think about to support you again here are the ones rit department supports where you can get help here are the ones that they don't support but that you might still want to think about using for
these reasons um and we go from there that's kind of my short answer to that question but yes i think that making the transferability of the academic literacy transparent is a really great idea
i'd like you to hear what charisse and paul i think i i haven't done what chris is asking about but it's a great idea i will do it um uh i know that
um you know an account user can see all of their hypothesis um comments in one place i haven't played with downloading um that to speak to the question of agency
and ownership i mean that the terms and conditions of the of the readers thorough website are that your data belongs to you if you if you want it deleted you can request it to be deleted it'll be you know
it will be deleted um but i will think about how to make it easy for them to actually download it and do stuff with it particularly in digital humanities context
where maybe what they would want to do is do some text analysis of their own writing and see what they find i think it's a great idea
i think it's a great question and um i just like paul i want to keep building that out um i will mention on the technical side there is um the crowd layers tool
behind um with marginal syllabus that allows folks to see patterns it's a learning analytics tool that allows folks to see patterns in like uh well maybe not well they can
create patterns and analyze those patterns but it allows them to see um the the analytics behind who's annotating articles so i put that name in the chat yeah thanks so that's i think that's a
tool once we think about you know our pedagogy which is the most important very cool thank you um is there anything else you all have do you have questions for each other or anything else i want to say i know
janae you have to head out pretty soon is there anything else you want to mention before you go yeah and i'm sorry i have to leave a few minutes before our panel is officially over but just want to thank um everyone for their contributions
today i agree mary with your assessment that these topics worked really well together there was great cross dialogue and conversation so i look forward to um keeping track of the excellent scholarship mentioned in
this panel um as well as staying in touch on the internet where we all live so thank you i'm gonna log off i know we still have a few minutes left but i appreciate everyone's um
contributions today thank you have a great day everyone see you around the conference thank you janae so anything else paul and sheree something else you want to share are um questions you have for each other
we have about 10 minutes left well i think this has been rich for me i have a lot of notes that will continue to shape my thought and conversation with you all um so i'm looking forward to to more of the conference
and uh staying in touch yeah um you know i'll just add um that uh you know i had not met charisse mary or janae before we got together
not very long ago to to get ready for this and i'm just amazed at the amount of overlap and convergence in the in the issues that we're talking
about and the ideas we have and the challenges that we see um anyone is going to face in making this work in a pedagogical context or you know just
around annotation in general um you know i'll i'll toss out one last issue that we haven't talked about that
our our students are are not likely to face but that writers on the open web face um and this came up for me
in a piece that audrey waters wrote um objecting to the fact that people were leaving hypothesis comments on her blog
she was writing on the open web and had deliberately turned off the comment capability in on her blog
she was got getting a lot of nasty stuff um in response to some of what she wrote and um but then lo and behold she found people um saying mean things in hypothesis
comments which are a separate layer that she didn't have to look at and that other readers wouldn't necessarily look at but it just bothered her that they were there and i know some of the hypothesis
folks who are in the meeting may know more than i do about conversation that she had with hypothesis about it um this is this is
i have never settled with myself exactly how i feel about this people were were you know essentially um engaging in
constitutionally protected speech but they were using the technology that they were you know layering the hypothesis technology over her site in a way that felt
intrusive to her and i i think it's a fascinating and i haven't seen anything you know about this since a couple of years ago i don't know whether it continues to be a live issue or others have raised it
i think it's a really interesting question at the crossroads of speech and democracy and privacy sorry i heard i heard that topic come up
and so i i popped back up on stage in case in case y'all wanted me to say anything um one thing i'll have to say about that i love that this panel had like the full amount of time to really unfold and
explore a lot of different things almost to the point where we're like maybe we've actually come to the end of the discussion now or not just then paul raises like one of the thorniest issues ever possibly but
i mean my quick response to that is that you know i mean i am a uh a study of um you know power and knowledge and discourse like that's my that's what i think about
and you know someone like audrey sits at a very different intersection of power knowledge as an independent scholar not affiliated with an institution than say the president of the united
states does um and so i don't i think a lot of people when they're considering the issue about all the things that you raise paul about this this intersection of privacy and free
speech and everything a lot of people are reaching for some sort of rule that will work everywhere for everyone and i i guess i feel like that's not really going to be a fruitful path for us i think it's
always going to have to be a more complex contextual thing that happens just like speech is in almost every case right now i appreciate that nate i i don't think
that there is a uh a blanket solution a one-size-fits-all solution to the issue there have been quite a few sessions at other gatherings other i annotates and so forth where
where people have wrestled with it and it's never really quite come up to you know no one's found like the magic bullet that solves the whole problem you know as if a bullet would solve anything wow
really interesting i actually hadn't heard of that and now there's like a lot of links and stuff in the chat that i really want to go look at and read um but it did remind me a little bit of what sharise was saying with that like asking permission especially with
authors that you're sort of inviting discussion but there's a whole other layer when it's not for a class it's not like this structured conversation where there's a facilitator and an instructor there it's just like you're out there on the internet so
that's a whole other thing so i have nothing wise to say about this except i'm i'm interested um cherise do you have the solution for this problem
no solutions but i think as is the nature of inquiry we're kind of seeing these things evolve i think it comes up somewhat just the right to data um your own you know this i heard someone mentioned earlier
intellectual property and i think that digital the digital is really challenging some of that um in our laws in the ways that we conduct irb ethics you know there's a difference
between um you know what's okay and what's um what's right you know so um yeah i just i think these are important
considerations to keep taking up not my area of expertise per se i just kind of generated from the humanizing aspect and yeah uh more considerations of of ethics um
so that's i think that's all i have to contribute about that well i am glad you used the word humanizing i think that's important like for all of the players in this like the if we're talking about uh annotating in the classroom for the
teacher for the students for the author or whoever like it's all important to us to recognize human beings in the internet another this might become like an
incredibly uh you know uh turtles all the way down discussion but um later in the week um well uh rainy collier and ontario garcia are going to be discussing
their book annotation um and they have a really good chapter on this subject i think oh well there it is right there you know i think i have mine right here too how many people have their annotations um but i think this there they have a
chapter that specifically talks about the you know the power knowledge you know intersections that happen in annotation and i think it's that we could just talk about that and well i know i think right raimi's in the audience right now
so we'll we can feed him that as yeah i'm really looking forward to that talk me too remy says dooley noted all right well it's two minutes to 11 30
is there anything else any last questions are coming from the chat or anything else you all want to say before we wrap up i just want to thank all the presenters janae paul cherise for all the things you said i took a ton of notes and
it's been really interesting um anything last thoughts thanks for doing a great job of moderating last time you did that paul raised a really good never mind
[Laughter] i just i just wanted to thank mary for a great job of moderating and and and for uh you know for the opportunity to be part
of this terrific discussion well thank you yeah it was really fun and thanks to nate and freddie and remy for for asking me to come on board it's been really really cool so
yeah thank you you
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